Von Braun Symposium speech Oct. 29, 2015

Wayne Hale Speech at
Von Braun Symposium October 29, 2015
First Slide – Pluto Limb from New Horizons
In his 1950 book ‘Interplanetary Flight: An Introduction to Astronautics’, Arthur C. Clarke wrote:
“the choice, as H. G. Wells once said, is the Universe – or nothing. Though men and civilizations may yearn for rest, for the Elysian dream of the Lotus Eaters, that is a desire that merges imperceptibly into death. The challenge of the great spaces between the worlds is a stupendous one, but if we fail to meet it, the story of our race will be drawing to its close. Humanity will have turned its back on the still untrodden heights and will be descending again the long slope that stretches, across a thousand million years of time, down to the primeval sea.”
What a challenge – and progress is being made as seen in this picture from the robotic New Horizons spacecraft of the planet Pluto
second slide: Saturn
The Universe or nothing. That is what all of us here believe, I think. Space exploration is important for a number of reasons that are all familiar to the crowd here. We don’t need to sell anybody here on the idea do we? In fact this is one of those aerospacy kind of meetings where the true believers are who are in attendance. This is the epitome of us talking to ourselves – something we do too much of.
So let’s take advantage of this opportunity to talk among ourselves. We can hope the media will turn off their cameras and stop their recordings because what I have to say here today is amongst the family – a message for us, to us, about us.
third slide: O’Neill
Personally I am an O’Neillian – persuaded decades ago by Gerard K O’Neill about the place of humanity in the universe – which is everywhere.
So – inside the family now – we must stop the internecine, take no prisoners debate, and not allow it to start again. Moon, Mars, Asteroids – which should we do? My answer is yes, all of the above, and all the other places in the solar system too. We will do them all, it is just a matter of how fast and in what order. But if we keep squabbling amongst ourselves so as to confuse the rest of the world about goals and objectives, then we will not get anywhere.
Slide: Von Braun
Similarly the argument about New Big Rocket vs Smaller Existing Rockets. Develop what you can afford. Use what you’ve got when you’ve got it. Von Braun himself once said about developing the Saturn V that going to the moon without it would be like flying the Berlin airlift with piper cubs – no one can say it can’t be done but the logistics are overwhelming. (Those of you too young to know what the Berlin airlift was will have a remedial course later).
slide: piper cub
If we can build an affordable big rocket, then by all means do so; if not, then we need to start dividing the mission up into piper cub sized packages and get on with it.
That is really my message for this family, it is not a happy message: get on with it.
slide: Orion & SLS
Two years ago I spoke to this conference and told you that we need to fly soon and fly often. We need to figure out how that can be done. Today we are not two years closer to the first human flight of our exploration systems. If anything we are farther away. No wonder I’m frustrated. If we are honest with each other, then we will acknowledge we are all frustrated.
In our frustration it is natural to try to place blame somewhere. John Adams once famously remarked that ‘One disreputable man is a disgrace; Two disreputable men are a law-firm, and Three or more disreputable men are called a Congress.” Ho ho ho. We all like that.
slide: Congress
But listen to me: It is not the Congress’s fault we are where we are. If anything, they are accurately representing their constituent’s views. Do you want to blame the President? It is not the President’s fault. Do you want to blame OMB, OSTP, the Big Aerospace Corporations, the little New Space disruptors? It is easy to point the finger and blame somebody else. But I am here to tell you – all in the family now – that they are not to blame. If you want to know who to blame, look in the mirror.
slide: rockwell mirror picture
Young Padawan – Learn new skills you must. Master yourself you must, if successful you are to be.
Or as a general officer I once knew often said: I’m not interested in your little problems, I’m only interested in results.
Yes, the blame falls on all of us the true believers. Why is that? Because we expect too much from others.
One of my mother’s favorite stories was about an immigrant family; the oldest son approached his father one day – a man who came to America, worked hard all his life in menial jobs to make a better life for his family – and the son said to his father ‘I would like to go to College’ The father thought for a long time and finally said ‘You have my permission’
slide: Heart of the City cartoon about money

I guess some of you got the point of that story.
You see, we have permission to go to Mars and the Asteroids and the other places, even the Moon.
What is holding us up is that we are asking for the taxpayers to foot the bill – we are asking for public money. That is the problem. Once you ask for public money you have to play the political game — and if you want to play that game, you can’t complain about the rules.
slide: transcontinental railroad
Two years ago, I told you a historical tale about the building of the transcontinental railroad – and how that was a great technical and engineering feat – but the really impressive part was the creative financing and the organization that made it successful.
Two years ago, I told you that we need to learn from that example, how to be creative, innovative, flexible, and hardworking – not just technically but financially and organizationally as well. It appears that my message was not understood, so I am here to present it again in blunter terms.
slide: Mercury capsule/Intelsat IV rescue/Watney
Remember Apollo 13: you need to make a CO2 removal device out of ‘this stuff’. And they did it. Like our predecessors in the 1960’s or like cinematic hero Mark Watney we need to be innovative with what we have, finding opportunities to thrive and succeed in the face of overwhelming circumstances
If those of us in this family that believes in space exploration are to make the dream come true – to save humanity in the long run – we must work harder, must be more creative, must do whatever it takes to be successful. And fighting internally or blaming the world as it exists are not productive ways to proceed.
I have two recurring nightmares that wake me in the wee hours of the morning: first, that a piece of MMOD takes out the ISS and that ends human space flight for a generation. In the cold light of day we know that the probability of that happening is very low.
The second nightmare is more probable: that on January 20, 2017 a new administration will roll into office; they won’t know what to do about space because it is never a big election issue;
slide: funny old people
They wheel Norm Augustine out from the retirement home to lead another blue-ribbon commission study on what the nation should do in space. The commission says the exact same thing that every other study and blue-ribbon commission has said for the past 40 years – NASA should go back to the moon, to Mars, to the other places, but that unless there is a significant increase in the budget NASA will not be able to anything very interesting.
And so on February 1, 2018, the new administration, with lots of higher priorities, cuts the big rocket and the deep space capsule and we are left to try to figure out how to get to Mars with Piper cubs . . .
slide: Multiple Piper Cubs
What do you call it when you do the same thing over and over again and expect different results?
If we are to conquer the universe then we have got to change our tactics. We must steal the playbook from those disruptive forces who can get things done IN THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT. This is not an easy lesson for a bunch of techno-geeks who would rather debate the mixture ratio selection for the main stage rocket engines and gets uncomfortable whenever the conversation turns to finances or organization.
In his fictional tale of the rich industrialist who bankrolled the first moon mission, Robert Heinlein created Delos D. Harriman. Intent on getting to the moon he put his complete business empire behind the effort. And when money ran short he never gave up finding new ways to earn or raise more. His business motto: “We also walk dogs”. That is the attitude we have to adopt. Be creative. Do what it takes. Never give up.
slide: dog walking
We have got to be able to figure out how to be safe and successful enough and go fly. Remember this: in exploration it is very important to keep safety always in our plans. But in exploration, safety is not the most important thing. In exploration, the most important thing is to actually go.
slide: safety workers
We need to quit doing non-value added paperwork. You can figure out what is worthwhile and what is a bureaucratic knee jerk to something that happened in the past.
So enough of a rant. Let’s get our act together, buckle down, and get this done.
The organizers said I can’t leave you without a historical lesson. . So now the media can turn back on he cameras again. (what? they hadn’t really turned them off?) Some of you may have heard this before, but here it is:
Then I proceeded to tell the symposium the history lesson of the Ming Navy vs. Portugal. I won’t repeat it here. If you want to read it try my old, archived NASA blog post:
But the point was in the first part of the speech. The rest is just . . . history.

Update:  the AAS has posted the video from the conference, you can watch it here:


My speech starts at about the 6 hr 55 min point

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How to Avoid Train Wrecks

There has been a recent renewal of interest in a post I made five years ago
“The Coming Train Wreck for Commercial Human Spaceflight”   https://waynehale.wordpress.com/2010/11/14/the-coming-train-wreck-for-commercial-human-spaceflight/
If you find that interesting perhaps you should read my post on Standards from just four years ago https://waynehale.wordpress.com/tag/standards/
Some people have called those posts prophetic. Not really. I don’t have all the answers. Just sad, tough experience from the inside out.
So how can we avoid a train wreck, not just in commercial human spaceflight but with the NASA exploration systems as well.
Spaceflight is exacting and very hard; the environments are tough, the energy levels are extreme, and the margin between success and failure is very slim. All of this is said so often that is sounds like a trite cliché. But no matter how trite it sounds, it is true. In the 21st century, still true.
We know a lot about launching satellites and people into low earth orbit – it has been done for decades. If you grew up with the Space Age, as I did, you got very accustomed to pictures and videos of rockets blowing up. Nowadays, rockets seldom blow up. I think the recent Atlas launch was the 100th success in a row. How did that occur?
Digging through the debris from failure after failure, engineers learned a little at a time about the complex and exacting process necessary to improve the chance of success in rocketry. No secrets anymore, nowadays those processes are well understood, well documented. And mostly followed.
To cite a couple of recent incidents; it is well know that a new heavy payload on the top of a new and spindly rocket (they are all spindly) it is imperative that the springy interaction be analyzed. If you don’t do that, well, you run the risk of failure like 59P last April.
Or if you try to lower the cost of your rocket by purchasing non-aerospace-standard parts, and don’t test each and every one of those parts, you run the risk of something breaking like it did on Spx-7 last June.
Or if you use really old rocket engines, you really should . . . well, enough recent history.
The point is, success in spaceflight is not easy and comes at a high price because the work is exacting and unforgiving. But we know how to do it well. Just follow the process.
But there is a rub, because the process, the standards, are not static. They are always being improved. Added to. Never reduced, unfortunately.
After Columbia, part of what we did was over the top. In order to satisfy all the critics, we did everything anybody asked for. Much of it was necessary, most of it was good, some of it was no value added bureaucracy to scratch some independent reviewer’s itch. All of it got codified as ‘lessons learned’ and added to the process.
The James Webb Space Telescope is a ‘must work’ project for the agency. There have been serious challenges, both technical and management. NASA has learned a lot about how NOT to manage a complex development project in the JWST experience. Much of that has been codified into new and ‘improved’ processes. Added processes. Always more, never less.
I have a cheap seat view of the Orion/SLS development. My basic observation: those efforts are drowning in ‘process’. The biggest threat to their success is not technical; it is schedule and cost. If the design and development processes drag the projects out too far, Congress or a new Administration will throw up their hands and call a halt to the whole thing. They did once before; my intuition is that they will again unless something significant happens.
The secret of a good program – as a very senior spacecraft designer once told me – is knowing how much is enough and then not doing anything more.
Right now, inside NASA, we have trained our workforce to do it perfectly. And perfection is very costly and takes a long time. Over in the Commercial Crew Program, the senior leadership is making some progress in toning down the drive for perfection. It is a slow effort and uphill at all times. Over in the Exploration systems area, it all seems to be going the other way. Whatever anybody calls necessary for safety or improvement – without evaluating the real cost or schedule or other impact – seems to be adopted.
So I am guardedly optimistic about the commercial teams actually succeeding in flying humans in space in the next couple of years.
Not so much optimism for the exploration systems, drowning in ‘process’.
Most engineering problems have an optimum solution, a point where doing more actually results in less performance. This situation is not an exception.
Somebody needs to be able to just say no. In order to succeed.
It’s not really rocket science, it’s just good engineering.
Everybody in the policy world and the blogosphere wants to debate destinations – Moon, Mars, Asteroids – or the shape and size of the rocket. All interesting but not really relevant. Pick a place. Make a design. If it’s going to actually fly, do what is necessary – and not one thing more.
That’s what real rocket builders need to focus on.

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Specific Plans

“A long term strategy and corresponding plans must also be developed . . . a set of notional milestones, launches, and hardware developments that are sufficiently defined so as to allow a cost estimate” – NASA Advisory Council finding April 2015

There is a story, perhaps apocryphal, that in the backseat of the car from NASA Headquarters to the White House to brief President Kennedy on the possibility of a moon landing, the legendary NASA Administrator James Webb decided to double the estimated cost of the program. Whether that part is true or not, the Webb estimate delivered that day in the spring of 1961 was significantly lower than the actual Apollo program.
Norman Augustine’s famous book of “Laws” concerning government acquisition states that all program cost estimates are subject to a correction factor of [1+ 0.52/(1+8t3)] where t is the percent of the procurement period completed. Or as he finishes the chapter with Law XXIV: “The most unsuccessful three years in the education of cost estimators appears to be fifth-grade arithmetic.”
During the so-called Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) days of the late 1980’s, the ’90-day-study’ came up with a very detailed plan to go to Mars . . . and the cost estimate made that plan dead on arrival at Congress. This lesson has not been lost on the NASA leadership.
A historical example may be in order. Look at the Apollo program hardware, specifically the Service Module and its rocket system the SPS (Service Propulsion System). That rocket engine is tremendously more powerful than the subsequent lunar landing flights needed. Why was such a large rocket engine installed on the Apollo SM? In 1961 when the first real plans for lunar landing were baselined, Direct Lunar Ascent was the designated mode. Some sort of huge lander would drop the entire CM/SM stack onto the lunar surface and the SPS had to be big enough to lift the astronauts, the Command Module, and the Service Module off the lunar surface and put them on a trajectory for the Earth.
To put that big stack – the CM/SM and the Landing Stage on a trajectory to the moon, the puny Saturn V was not big enough. Developing a much larger rocket was required – they called it Nova. Nova would have twice the number of F-1 engines as the Saturn V, tanks twice the diameter, much taller, more stages, etc., etc., etc. Exactly how the Nova rocket would be built was never figured out – it would be too big to fit under the ceiling of the factory at Michoud where the Saturn V first stage was made. The notions of how to transport that rocket to the launch pad were . . . notional.

Then along came some bright boys at Langley headed by John Houbolt who advocated an operationally more complex idea called Lunar Orbit Rendezvous – which only needed the Saturn V already under development.
The Nova rocket, the 100 foot tall Lunar Descent Stage, all went in the dust bin of history were never developed. But the contract for the SPS engine had already been let. Any real need to downsize that engine? No, but much less propellant would be carried in the tanks. If the Apollo CM/SM were somehow magically transported to the surface of the moon, the SPS had enough oomph to lift them off . . . but probably not enough gas onboard to get very far.
LOR was a good idea. Lots of folks are proposing ideas for future space travel. Some of them are actually pretty good. Locking a plan down means new, good ideas can’t complete.
History cries out with lessons. Some of them are subtle. Having detailed plans is generally good; believing in them too much is not. In the military they are fond of quoting the maxim: “No battle plan survives its first encounter with the enemy”. In space, the enemy is physics and chemistry . . . and finances. It may be that flexibility and leaving options open provides a better path for our long term ambitions in space. Who knows what may be invented in the next five years that could change the entire game plan?
Would we have made it to the moon if we tried to build the Nova rocket to do it? Maybe, maybe not.
The wrong plan can easily come with a forecast cost – a shock to the system – such that the program is never approved. Having a reasonable plan for the next step while keeping the goal in sight might actually be better. Waiting a little while doing some testing and development might be a good idea. Finding creative ways of controlling costs is mandatory.
Meanwhile, anybody seen Zephram Cockrane out there? Or at least the ghost of John Houbolt?

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Pilot Error is Never Root Cause

Most accidents originate in actions committed by reasonable, rational individuals who were acting to achieve an assigned task in what they perceived to be a responsible and professional manner.
— Peter Harle, Director of Accident Prevention,Transportation Safety Board of Canada and former RCAF pilot, ‘Investigation of human factors: The link to accident prevention.’ In Johnston, N., McDonald, N., & Fuller, R. (Eds.), Aviation Psychology in Practice, 1994

Recent news stories have made me think about STS-28 landing. That flight is special to me because it was my first shuttle flight to sit in the big chair in the center of mission control. I was the Flight Director on the planning shift. New flight directors always start on the night shift when the crew is asleep. Get in less trouble that way. But your first time is always special and I won’t forget that flight.

STS-28 was a ‘classified’ flight that carried a national security payload. Someday, perhaps a long time from now, they will declassify it and let me know what exactly it was we were carrying. But for now, all I know is that they told me it was ‘important’. Important enough, in that post-Challenger era, to put a flight crew at risk. Because every shuttle flight is risky.

Brewster Shaw was the commander of STS-28, his first time in that role. Brewster is a remarkable pilot, one of the best, and went on to demonstrate significant skills as Program Manager for the Space Shuttle and later a leader in the Boeing Space and Defense organization. Not all astronauts make good managers but Brewster certainly did. But in those days Brewster was best known for his piloting ability.

Immediately prior to the flight of STS-28 a problem was uncovered with the way the flight software worked in connection with the small sensors on the landing gear. These so called ‘squat switches’ made contact as the landing gear was compressed and the software moded from flying to rolling on the wheels control. I’ve forgotten the particulars but there was a failure mode that if the switches made contact in a certain way that the computers would put the flight control system into the wrong mode – steering with the nose wheels when steering should be controlled by the rudder and elevens or something like that. Could lead to catastrophic loss of control.

It was too late to modify the software, and the switches were inaccessible with the shuttle attached to the external tank. A manual workaround by the pilot was required to ensure safety. So the Commander and Pilot got briefed – multiple times – in the last few days before flight about the need to land very softly – with a low ‘sink rate’ at touchdown – so the switches and software would work properly.

On the last night of the flight, I supervised the team as we prepared the entry messages for the crew. One of those was a reminder to land ‘softly’. The Entry flight control team came on and I went home hoping for a good landing. One of the first calls that the Capcom made – the crew was waking up as I was leaving the MCC – was a reminder to land softly.

So we set Brewster up.

Nominal deorbit burn, nominal entry, TAEM and HAC acquisition all normal, Commander took over flying manually as planned just as the orbiter decelerated to subsonic speeds. A perfect final glideslope. And now for the moment of truth, would the landing be soft enough to prevent the software glitch?

Normally an orbiter lands with a heavyweight payload in the bay at 205 kts – that is really fast for airplanes, but those stubby delta wings on the shuttle don’t create a lot of lift. With the payload bay empty – as it was for STS-28 – the lightweight landing speed is targeted at 195 kts. Under special circumstances, the pilots were allowed to land as slow as 185 kts. Brewster kept working and working to get the landing sink rate low and the speed kept dropping and dropping. At some point, as any fixed wing aircraft slows down, the wings will ‘stall’ and the aircraft will drop like a rock. Also, as the speed goes down, the pilot has to adjust the nose higher and higher – increasing the ‘angle of attack’ – to maintain lift. At some point with a high angle of attack at low altitude, the tail will scrape on the runway – always considered to be a catastrophic event for the shuttle.

The shuttle touched down at 154 kts. It is still the record for the slowest shuttle touchdown speed by a wide margin. It was less than 5 kts above stall speed. The tail avoided scraping by inches.

Oh, and by the way, the squat switches and software worked perfectly. No issues.

The post flight debriefings were all very positive and constructive – except for the entry and landing analysis. You can look back in my posts for the one called ‘Hockstein’s Law’ for a flavor.

I’ve never seen Brewster so embarrassed. In trying to avoid one hazard he nearly created another. In colorful pilot language (which I won’t repeat) he told us all that ‘on any given day the pilot can foul things up’. And it’s true. But I never blamed Brewster. We had set him up.

By concentrating on one issue to the exclusion of all others, and not reminding him of the training – probably years earlier – about very slow landing hazards – we, the flight control team, the program office, the NASA management – we set him up.

When doing an accident (or close call) investigation, I’ve been told to ask ‘why’ seven times before getting to root cause. The root cause, for example, can never be “the bolt broke”; a good accident investigator would ask “why did the bolt break”. Otherwise, the corrective action would not prevent the next problem. Simply putting another bolt in might lead to the same failure again. Finding out the bolt was not strong enough for the application and putting in a stronger bolt, that is the better solution – and so on.

The Russians had a spectacular failure of a Proton rocket a while back – check out the video on YouTube of a huge rocket lifting off and immediately flipping upside down to rush straight into the ground. The ‘root cause’ was announced that some poor technician had installed the guidance gyro upside down. Reportedly the tech was fired. I wonder if they still send people to the gulag over things like that. But that is not the root cause: better ask why did the tech install the gyro upside down? Were the blueprints wrong? Did the gyro box come from the manufacturer with the ‘this side up’ decal in the wrong spot? Then ask – why were the prints wrong, or why was the decal in the wrong place. If you want to fix the problem you have to dig deeper. And a real root cause is always a human, procedural, cultural, issue. Never ever hardware.

So it is with pilot error. Pilot error is never ever a root cause. Better to ask: was the training wrong? Were the controls wrong? Did the pilot get briefed on some other problem that cause distraction and made him/her fly the plane badly?

Corrective actions must go to root causes, not intermediate causes. Really fixing the problem requires more work than simply blaming the pilot.

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Peeking Behind the Curtain

When I worked for the government, I never really understood what industry was doing; it was all behind a curtain. They gave only glimpses of what they wanted the government to see. Those of us in the civil services always had theories about what was going on in the corporate boardrooms or in the private research labs. But we really didn’t know and it was always the cause of puzzlement.
Nowadays, I’m retired from the government and work as a consultant, mostly to private industry. I find that the industry guys don’t have a lot of insight into how the government works, surprising to me. I always thought we had been fully open and transparent. Now I know better; the government and its decision making processes are pretty impenetrable from the outside. In fact, a lot of the leaders and workers out in the aerospace industry have established theories about how the government works internally, about what the government leadership wants, etc. I find most of these theories incredibly funny, terribly inaccurate, and I am astounded that otherwise knowledgeable people have some very odd ideas about what goes on behind the walls of government offices.
Thus my consulting work is very busy. Now that I’ve had a foot in both camps, I find I do a lot of theory correcting. Interpretation of what is motivating this party or that. Understanding what they want so needs can be efficiently met. Really keeps me busy.
Oh yeah, there is that technical work, too. Lots of that.
One of the reasons that I don’t get around to updating this blog as often as I used to is that my clients keep me busy. And my old government colleagues are always asking for my time, too.
A lot of what I do – make that almost all of what I do – is covered by ‘Non-Disclosure Agreements’. In other words, I can’t tell anybody about what anybody else is doing. There are a lot of times when I have to bite my tongue, but that is the nature of the job. Reminds me of the old days when I worked on ‘classified’ shuttle flights. In the name of national security I had to keep a lot of things from a lot of people. Kept me busy trying to remember who I could say what to and who I couldn’t. Interesting mental exercise to partition your memory and thoughts like that. Good training for my current work.
So, while I’d like to blog about what my clients are doing, well, you will just have to wait for them to tell you themselves; I’m not authorized
But what I can tell you is that it’s amazing. There are so many organizations working on so many aspects of space flight: new vehicles, new engines, new capabilities. Whew. I don’t know if they are all going to make it but I’m sure at least some of them will.
There is a renaissance coming in space travel. Some of it is from the government, yes, but a lot of it is not. Some of it is coming from garage shop inventors and some of it is coming from the biggest industrial corporations, and a lot of it is coming from folks in between.
Much of the really interesting advances won’t be the big jobs programs that the politicians like. If you are a politician and want to help the space program – you can send money, but better to open doors to private industry, remove barriers, reduce red tape.
Now that made me sound like I read the Wall Street Journal too much. Lest you think I’ve gone over to the ‘anything goes’ camp, I will quickly say that there is a very real place for the government to make sure that adequate safety precautions are followed. Not exactly like what is done for airliners, but something more fitted to this new, higher risk, higher energy field.
Anyway, I’ve got to say it’s been a great ride: all those years working on the forefront of the big government space programs, and now helping all the industry geniuses break through to the future.
Just stand by.
You will be amazed.

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February first, again

No matter what is going on with the world, no matter what is happening in my life,  when the calendar turns to February 1 I have to stop, remember, and rededicate.

This year we have another gold star on the wall honoring those who have given the ultimate sacrifice in the conquest of space.  Michael Alsbury died last October trying to reach for the edge of space.  I trust that the NTSB will have several lessons for all of us to pay attention to when their report comes out.


It is a day to honor those brave souls.  I would particularly point out the last phrase on the Apollo 1 plaque at LC 34:  “Remember then not for how they died, but for those ideals for which they lived.”

It is not adequate to get emotional, and think about our losses; what is required is that we actually do something – make spaceflight safer, more reliable, and more common.  It has been too long to get maudlin.  It is time to get busy.

Over the next several blog posts I intend to visit the work we had to do to return the space shuttle to flight after Columbia.  It was much more than just technical.  Oh yes, much more than technical.

In the meantime, think on these words from the American author Jack London:

“I would rather be ashes than dust; I would rather that my spark should burn out in a brilliant blaze than it should be stifled by dry-rot; I would rather be a superb meteor, every atom of me in magnificent glow, than in a sleepy and permanent planet; the proper function of man is to live, not to exist.”

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Space Thanksgiving

Today is the day in America that we set aside to count our blessings and give thanks for all the good that is in our lives.  So I will set aside my curmudgeonly ways and ignore the future and all the imperfections to concentrate on what is good and right.

Like most of you, but mindful that not everyone had these, I give thanks for faith, family, friends, food, freedom, and finances.  I wish that everyone could be as fortunate as I have been.  Good health, too, is a blessing that not everyone can share.

But today, as is the theme of this location, I would like to think about space.

I am thankful for the opportunity to live in such a time; with all its challenges and imperfections this is a unique time in history.  My generation, born before Sputnik, living yet, is the only generation that has gone from wondering to knowing.  Before, we all thought there were canals on Mars and it was full of intelligent life; now we know that it is a marvelous place but not like that.  Before, we thought Venus was a swampy, wet, and warm world; not we know it is not like that.  Before, we had no idea what the far side of the moon even looked like, now we know.  The mysteries of Saturn’s rings, the icy moons of Jupiter, and much much more, we could only guess about; now we know, at least in part.  This is the great age of solar system exploration.  We are fortunate to live during the excitement of these days. And there is more to come.

I am thankful to personally know and interact with the giants of this age of space exploration.  To work alongside many of the heroes of Apollo, to talk with Nobel laureates in cosmology and astronomy; to meet with the leaders of the organizations which carried out all these works, is truly amazing.  Better than meeting the Hollywood stars — and I’ve been fortunate to meet many of those, too.

I’m thankful that I have been able to contribute at least in a small way to the advancement of humanity into the cosmos.  To sit in the big chair in Mission Control, with all the power and responsibility, is an opportunity that few will have.  To be responsible for an organization which regularly launched humans into space to accomplish great tasks – repairing Hubble, building the ISS, and so much more; that has been a blessing, too.

To know those who put their lives on the line to fly on the fiery rockets and plunge into the unknown, that has been an awesome blessing and lesson in courage.

To have good work to do even in these days, helping new organizations build the next generation of rockets and spacecraft – safer and more efficient than before – that is a blessing.  To contribute to the nation’s policy discussions and shape a more hopeful future, that is a blessing.

Today I pray for blessings on all our spacefarers at work on the ISS, bring them home safely after long and productive work high above us.  I pray for blessings for those building new spacecraft and rockets, help them be diligent and creative so that we may all be successful.  I pray for the leaders of our nation and other nations who make space exploration a priority; grant them wisdom and vision to use resources wisely to make our lives better here on earth and in the future in the cosmos.

Finally, I am thankful for the dreamers who inspire us.  Ideas can be outlandish or practical but they challenge all of us to do more to bring the future into focus.

So I really have quite a lot to be thankful for today.  I hope you d,o too.




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